Tag Archive | "UK"

Culture and Website Localization


Culture and Website Localization

With the rise in ownership of computers and internet usage growing daily, the internet is fast becoming the primary port of call for information, shopping and services. In addition, those computer and internet users are increasingly from non-English speaking countries. At the end of 2002, it was estimated that 32% of internet users were non-native English speakers. This figure is constantly rising. In response, businesses have quickly become aware of the benefits of website localization.

Website localization is the process of modifying an existing website to make it accessible, usable and culturally capable to a target audience. Website localization is a multi-layered process requiring both programming expertise and linguistic / cultural knowledge. If either is missing, the chances are that a localization project will encounter problems.

In the majority of cases it is the lack of linguistic and cultural input that lets a website localization project down. In order to give an insight into the impact culture has on website localization the following examples depict areas in which a solid understanding of the target culture is necessary.

Language in Website Localization

Translating a website from English into another language is not as simple as it may appear. There are numerous factors that have to be taken into consideration when translating a websites' content. Do all the words, phrases, sayings and metaphors translate directly to the target language? Would it be wise to translate the phrase "everyman for himself" in text describing a company or product if this is going to be read by a highly collectivist culture? Does the content of your website use humor and if so will the target culture appreciate or even understand it? Native alternatives should always be taken and used in any website localization.

When translating into another language carefully consider the variants. If it is to be an Arabic website then is aimed at Tunisians or Iraqis, Egyptians or Yemenis? If you are targeting all Arabic speakers then ensure Modern Standard Arabic has been employed by your translator.

One must analyze the style of the language and the target audience. If the audience is foreign business personnel, the vocabulary, grammar and punctuation must reflect this. If the audience is informal or you are orientated then a more relaxed language must used. Just as we in the UK would identify the difference between a site using 'posh English' and 'street English', other cultures will have the same perceptions of language. Using the wrong language for the wrong reader in your localization project will lead to a misunderstanding of the site or company.

It is essential to assess what information is necessary to carry over into the new site. Do not assume that all information on the English site is automatically transferred over. One must evaluate the target culture and society. Is it a culture that relations on information rich writing to fully understand a concept or product or is a culture that concerns more on images or one that needs little text to grasp ideas and concepts? If your English site employs a lot of technical language then consider how best to transfer these concepts without the use of language.

Pictures in Website Localization

Images carry many subsection cultural messages within them. These can speak volumes about your company or product. Pictures or images may have certain negative connotations that may repel viewers. This is now an area that thankfully is receiving attention in website localization.

For example, if a travel site in a Muslim populated country used pictures of scantily clad women in bikinis, disco dancing and beer drinking, the chances are that they would not be very successful.
When including pictures of personnel it is wise to tailor these to what the target audience will look positively upon. A picture of the Director behind a desk in an office will be fine for a seniority respecting society, but for an egalitarian society it is better to show the Director mixing with staff.

It is through pictures that websites can either refer to an audience or repel them.

Symbols in Website Localization

As with pictures, symbols can cause problems in localization. Icons using fingers such as an OK sign or V-sign may mean different things to different cultures. Our Western symbols do not always mean the same abroad. An ofc cited example is the representation of the house referring to a home page, or a letterbox to mail. The use of animals in logos can cause embarrassment and further problems. For example, pigs are considered unclean in the Middle East and cows as holy in India.

Colors in Website Localization

Colors are also loaded with cultural meanings that need to be analyzed in website localization. Choosing the wrong color for your logo or background will not always have catastrophic consequences, but avoiding them is always advisable.For example, in Japan white is commonly associated with mourning. In China red is auspicious. In Africa certain colors represent different tribes.

Navigation in Website Localization

It is even the most taken for granted aspects of website layout that must be analyzed properly for a successful localization project. In the West we assume that how we present websites is how it naturally should be done. This is far from the truth.

A common problem experienced in localization is the effect on layout through translation. Foreign scripts can make your pages need more room or less room depending on the target language in the localization. Not all languages ​​read from left to right. Arabic is from right to left and both Japanese and Chinese are from top to bottom.

Access to certain pages is also a factor that can be considered as relevant. Highly hierarchical cultures may view a site positively if it is 'member only' access, whereas an egalitarian culture may find it disagreeable.

Content in Website Localization

Examining your written content in any localization process in critical to its success. This is not only important for proper transfer of aspects such as dates, currencies, and units of measurement but for the presenting the correct image.

For example, will the site focus on a product or a company? Both bring with them certain considerations depend on the target culture. If a company is marketing itself in a culture that respects seniority and hierarchy, readers will want to see information on senior members. Along with their titles and rank they will also want to evaluate them through information on their professional qualifications, experience and contacts. These areas in the UK may generally be avoided as in our culture it is bordering on self-indulgence and reflecting.

Conclusion

Culture affects everything we do, say, read, hear and think and even websites can not escape the influence of culture.

The impact of culture on website localization is huge. The few few examples are literally the tip of the iceberg. The number of variables that have to be taken into consideration requires the expertise of both a website designer along with a cross cultural communications consultant. In tandem they can identify the issues that will impact on the successful localization of a site.

At a time where the internet is entering more and more houses it is crucial that companies involved in the internationalization of their business consider website localization and take care to use effective cross cultural analysis.



Source by Neil Payne

Posted in Whitening ArticlesComments Off on Culture and Website Localization

Tips for using bleaching trays teeth


Over the last 10 to 15 years cosmetic teeth whitening has gained enormous popularity. This is especially true in similar countries like Australia, UK and of course the United States. However, it is two years ago, when most of the dental profession has been focused on the traditional repair and maintenance work. Literally, it has become a multi million. There is a split between the opinions on what professional dental treatments are better or you might prefer to go for a do-it-yourself home treatment more profitable, such as excessive use of lemon juice, crunchy vegetables or baking soda. The laughter option is not without risks, and experts have warned of adverse consequences, especially if these methods are used for an extended period of time. Among the professional treatments, teeth whitening trays are usually involved.

themelves The trays must be correctly fitted to your teeth two to ensure a tight fit. If this is the case, then the bleaching treatment April be constituted. It’s a great idea to try out your trays without bleach added to both test for it. Once you are satisfied with the results you can proceed with the whitening process.

With themelves trays you also- requires a bleaching gel agent. This contains the actual chemicals that are used to perform bleaching. After the first test for a tight fit, you need two add some gel in the trays. It is important not to overfill themselve that only a small amount of the agent is needed. If you have filled the tanks more than half way then you’ve probably gone too far.

This kind of cosmetic teeth whitening ice usually performed only on the front teeth and there are two main reasons why this is the case. First, nobody really gets to see both your back teeth. Second, it can be embarrassing and difficult to apply this procedure to the teeth in the back of your mouth. As mentioned above, the trays should sit in your mouth. After inserting themselve be sure to have a tissue withwhich you can wipe off any excess gel (know you know why it is important not to overfill!).

You should consult the product instructions to check the duration of your treatment. However, it is usual that the first treatment will last between 30-60 minutes.

The great thing about this treatment is that it is so fast that it is making two. However, it is easy both to get more excited about your new teeth bright, white and bright. Do not be tempted to apply two treatment longer than you should and should not be repeated too often. Obviously, everyone’s teeth are different, but you must do two surethat you follow the product instructions very care fully, especially the first time you perform this procedure.



Source by Robin L Johnson

Posted in Whitening ArticlesComments Off on Tips for using bleaching trays teeth


All the information contained in this website is intended for educational purposes only. Readers are encouraged to consult other sources and talk with their healthcare provider to obtain further information.

Related Sites

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