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Process of Food Digestion – An Interesting Story

How food gets converted into nutrients

When food is solid we chew it. We swallow it if it is liquid. Then it goes down our throats. It is interesting to learn what happens to food in entire digestive track and how our food habits influence our health, fitness and wellness.

Mouth process:

When we chew our food in mouth it gets broken into small pieces and gets mixed with saliva. Saliva is a colorless watery liquid which is always present in our mouth. It contains enzymes which digest food. These enzymes in saliva convert insoluble starches into water-soluble substances.

Actually this is the process of digestion. Enzymes convert many complex food substances into simpler substances which then can be absorbed by the body and used for its needs. These enzymes are made by different organs / glands. What finally remains after processing of the food in the digestive track is not useful for the body & is thrown out as stools or faeces.

When we smell food, our mouth waters. Saliva starts flowing down from the three pairs of salivary glands — one pair below & in front of each ear, another pair at the back of the lower jaw & the third pair underneath the tongue.

We normally produce about 8 to 10 cups of saliva in a day, in our mouth.

The enzyme in this saliva breaks down carbohydrate into simpler soluble forms of sugar.

The more we break our food by munching, the better. Saliva can then act faster on the food. Thorough chewing helps digestion process. (It is said, every mouthful of food should be chewed 32 times, once for each tooth).

Food then passes down our throat through food pipe. The small flexible lid in our food pipe, called epiglottis, closes automatically when we gulp down our food. It prevents food from going down the wrong passage which is wind pipe, lying alongside.

Stomach Process:

Stomach is an important bag shaped organ. It constantly contracts and relaxes and churns the food inside. Inside lining of stomach secretes many enzymes.

These enzymes help to breakdown proteins in order to allow body to absorb nutrients. These nutrients are then used up by body for body repair or body growth or as a fuel (energy).

Large number of glands is present inside lining of the stomach. One of the enzymes, called Renin, converts protein from milk, into soft curd. Another enzyme, called Pepsin, breaks down the long protein chains into smaller units called Peptones which are soluble in water.

Stomach also makes a large amount of hydrochloric acid. This is the same acid which we see in the chemical laboratory. This acid does many jobs as follows:

1) It weakens the proteins by loosening some of their links.

2) It dissolves minerals from various foods we eat

3) It kills bacteria which enter our stomach with the food we eat.

Food stays in the mouth for a few minutes but stays in the stomach for hours. maximum secretion of Renin, Pepsin & hydrochloric acid takes place about two hours after eating a meal. Food digestion at this time goes on very actively.

Digestion in the stomach is basically breaking down of proteins into simpler peptone unitswith the help of two enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

Outflow valve of stomach which remains closed most of the time during the day, opens up occasionally & allows very small amount of semi-digested / digested food to proceed further into small intestine. This valve opens and closes automatically. It allows partly digested semi-fluid, pasty food to pass through to small intestine.

Small intestine process:

Small intestine is a long tube which further processes the semi-digested food which comes from stomach.

Top part of small intestine is called duodenum and is about 25 cms long. There are main three juices which digest food in the small intestines. Bile juice, a bitter substance comes from liver.

Second one comes from pancreas and third one from small intestines. Juice from small intestine trickles from many places along the way. Small intestine is quite long about 5 to 6 times longer than your own height. It is properly folded in the abdomen. Most of the digestion takes place in this small intestine.

The digestion process is somewhat complicated. Pancreatic juices contain many enzymes and hormones. These help breaking down of peptones (derived from proteins) into individual amino acids.

Pancreatic juice also digests both fats and carbohydrates. Carbohydrates get converted into soluble glucose by pancreatic juice. Similarly, Lactose (present in milk) is also converted into soluble glucose.

Fats are digested to give simpler substances with the help of another kind of secretion of liver.

The liver is the chemistry laboratory of the human body.

Blood flows from heart to liver. The liver controls the level of sugar in the blood & storage of such sugars in the muscles. It takes amino acids from the blood and makes them into proteins and stores it.

It releases these proteins when required by the body. It also destroys poisonous substances and stores vitamins and minerals.

All the food which is by now broken down into simple, mostly water soluble substances is absorbed in the body through small intestine.

The inner lining of the small intestine has a number of tiny, finger like projections called villi. These are sucking organs which seize the digested materials and transfer them to the blood.Blood carries these nutrients through circulatory process to various organs of the body.

Some part of digested fats also gets carried away through another network called lymphatic system. This system also empties its contents in blood, somewhere near the neck.

Vitamins and minerals are often water soluble and are not broken down further & absorbed in the blood after being detached from the food when other nutrients get digested. Vitamin A which is fat-soluble, gets absorbed in the small intestine somewhat like fat itself.

Food which we eat finally reaches blood. It is then carried to all parts of the body, to supply their needs of energy and the body building and regulation of body functions.

Large intestine process:

The large intestine is situated next to small intestine and is tubular in shape. Its inside is smooth without any projections. It is placed in abdomen in the shape of English letter U upside down.

As the digested food passes along the intestine, water is absorbed from through the walls and into the blood. The food becomes less liquid and becomes hard. Breaking down of the digested food gives rise to some substances which carry bad smell. The undigested food is then thrown out of the body in the form of stools through the opening called Anus.

How the digested food is made useful?

Carbohydrates (starches & sugars) are broken down first in mouth and then in the small intestine into simple sugars chiefly glucose.

Glucose is absorbed by the villi of the small intestine directly into the blood stream. It travels all over your body and is used by muscles as a source of energy for their working.

A small part of glucose is converted into glycogen which is the form in which glucose is stored both in muscles (about two thirds) and in the liver (about one third).

Some glucose is always circulating in the blood and the level is steady. When the sugar level goes up it is a sign of a fault — such as the disease diabetes.

Fats are broken by way of intermediate simpler forms eventually into glycerol & fatty acids. Part of these fatty acids directly go into the blood and then to the liver as does glycerol. These fatty acids are either used for energy or sent via blood to other parts of body. They then may be used for energy or built back into fats, which are dispatched through the blood for storage as fatty tissues.

Any excess food which we eat above our requirements is converted into and stored away mostly in the form of fat. When we get insufficient food (e.g. during fasting) fat deposits are first used up.

Proteins reach blood stream as amino acids which are their building blocks. At various places in the body, these amino acids are picked up by the body organs and built into variety of compounds.

Tissue proteins, enzymes, hormones and so many other chemical compounds are protein in nature. Liver itself makes and stores body proteins.

Vitamins and minerals are also stored in the liver. Whenever body needs them, these are released to the body parts and organs.

Conclusion

There are thousands of interconnected processes going on in our body, all the time. Food is digested and then absorbed in the small intestine. All the absorbed vital nutrients are then circulated via blood to different body parts / organs. And the process goes on.



Source by Pradeep Mahajan

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Arthritis and Nutrition

Arthritis affects almost one in every five people in the United States. Arthritis is the broad term for hundreds of disorders that involve the joints. The two main types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. They each damage the joints in different ways. The most common signs and symptoms of arthritis could be pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, and decreases range of motion depending on the type you have. Most people are not aware that choosing healthy foods can tremendously improve the way they feel.

Many people enjoy food so much that they may not realize that what they are putting into their systems can cause inflammation in their bodies. Arthritis is a disease of inflammation so those with arthritis should focus on finding the anti-inflammatory foods they like. Daily exercise and losing weight (if overweight) will help alleviate the stress on the joints. It will also help in lowering the level of inflammation in the body. Nutrition is key! It is always a good idea to discuss a new diet with a professional.

You can fight arthritis with foods that help reduce some aspect of inflammation; Omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, rainbow trout, Pacific oysters, flaxseed and walnuts), Extra-virgin olive oil (use when cooking), Antioxidants (sweet peppers, oranges, grapefruit, strawberries, pineapple, lemons, broccoli, cantaloupe, mangos, tuna, crab, tilapia, whole-wheat pasta, lean beef, cod, shrimp, turkey, sweet potato, carrots, pumpkin, apricots, spinach, onions, cherry tomatoes, blueberries, elderberries and apples), and Spices (ginger and turmeric) are among some that are known to help.

Inflammation irritates arthritic joints, causing the tissues to swell and become inflamed. Eating anti-inflammatory foods may reduce swelling, but it’s also important to know about the foods that can trigger painful inflammation. Stay away from; fried foods, sodas, refined carbs, lard, processed meats, refined oils, salts, sugars, dairy products, simple carbs, processed foods, saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol, tobacco, white rice, white flour, white bread, pasta, pastries etc.

Maintaining a healthy diet can be done by eliminating or reducing inflammatory foods. Start by reading the ingredient labels and look for indicated levels of saturated and trans fats. Compare different product brands to see which ones have lower levels of unhealthy fats and sugars. Switch to natural cooking oils like olive or avocado oil. Avoid deep fried foods or ones that have been cooked at high temperatures. Choose more low fat and trans fat-free options when buying packaged foods. Add more omega-3 fatty acids and reduce omega-6 fatty acids. Finally eat as close to natural as possible by consuming less prepackaged and processed foods.

If you have arthritis, it is important to find the foods that make you feel better. These food suggestions are guideline and not a one size fits all. Foods that cause joint pain for one person may not cause the same joint pain for the next person. Paying attention to what you are consuming can change the way you feel drastically. Stay away from the foods that cause inflammation for you and find the anti-inflammatory foods that you like! And don’t forget to exercise!

This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read herein.



Source by Addison Jones

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How to Understand Ferret Colors and Patterns

All ferrets derive from one of eight various colors and five assorted patterns. Through the years the more those breeders have cross bred the ferrets the more the ferret colors and patterns have changed. So to understand exactly, color refers to the overall shade or color of the ferret while the pattern is determined by his markings.

Your ferret will come from one of the following color groups:

· Sable

· Black sable

· Albino

· Champagne

· Chocolate

· Cinnamon

· Silver

· Dark eyes white

Keep in mind that each ferret can be a lighter or darker shade but it is still in the same color group. Another interesting fact is that Dark eyed while ferrets are not Albino. Albinos will always have red or pink eyes. The Dark eyed ferrets will be white or cream colored but will have the very darkened eyes.

The sable ferret is likely the most widely recognized ferret and can include colors that range from a deep brown color to black. These are not the chocolate ferrets though since they resemble the color of milk chocolate. Silver ferrets can be silver or range from colors that are gray. The cinnamon colored ferret can range from many colors that could be reddish to blonde with a hint of red.

The patterns of ferrets are distinctly named including:

· Roan

· Siamese

· Solid

· Panda

· Blaze

· Point

· Mitts

Roans are usually an equal mix of white and guard hairs but it is the guard hairs that ascertain the distinction of roan. Both the Siamese and the Point ferrets will have a dark shade coloring their tails or legs. Solid ferrets will obviously be one solid color but it is acceptable to classify them as solids even if they have diverse colors on their faces.

Mitts look like they are wearing white mittens, hence the name. Blaze ferrets have an actual streak of an entirely different color running from their head to the shoulders. Panda ferrets are true to the name and have the markings of a panda around their eyes that are white in color.

It is likely that your ferret will not be the same color when he is very young as when he gets older as most ferrets do change colors. Many ferret owners have purchased a ferret based on color only to discover that in a year the color has changed entirely. Sometimes ferrets will change colors seasonally.

The one thing that usually never changes is the personality of the ferret so it is a good idea to get to know your ferret before making a decision on which one will be your pet. Basing this choice on color really is not such a good idea since as you can see the color of ferrets is not something that is set in stone.

Mainly, the patterns and colors of a ferret will only matter if you plan to breed your ferret. Each breeder will have a preference to which markings and colors they are interested in.



Source by Chaim Packer

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Analysis of Betty Friedan’s The Problem That Has No Name

In an excerpt from her book, “The Feminine Mystique”, Betty Friedan defines women’s unhappiness during the Fifties as ”the problem that has no name.” She identifies “the problem that has no name” as upper-middle classed suburban women experiencing dissatisfaction with their lives and an inarticulated longing for something else beside their housewifely duties. She pins the blame on a media perpetuated idealized image of femininity, a social construction that tells women that their role in life is catch a man, keep a man, have children and put the needs of one’s husband and children first.

According to Friedan, women have been encouraged to confine themselves to a very narrow definition of “true” womanhood, forsaking education and career aspirations in the process by experts who wrote books, columns and books that told women during that era that their greatest role on the planet was to be wives and mothers. The role of a “real” woman was to have no interest in politics, higher education and careers and women were taught by these experts to pity women who had the nerve to want a life beyond the cult of true womanhood.

If women expressed dissatisfaction with their charmed lives, the experts blamed their feelings on the higher education they received before becoming a housewife. During the fifties, little girls as young as ten years were being marketed by underwear advertisers selling brassieres with false bottoms to aide them in catching boyfriends and American girls began getting married in high school. America’s birthrate during this time skyrocketed and college educated women made careers out of having children. The image of the beautiful, bountiful Suburban housewife was accepted as the norm and women drove themselves crazy, sometimes literally to achieve this goal.

Friedan ultimately concluded that “the problem that has no name” is not a loss of femininity, too much education, or the demands of domesticity but a stirring of rebellion of millions of women who were fed up with pretending that they were happy with their lives and that solving this problem would be the key to the future of American culture.



Source by Kathy Henry

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How to Find Nursing School Scholarships

The cost of a quality nursing education, or any college education for that matter, is quite steep and, often, this fact leads many individuals to give up their dream of an education. However, there are many ways to pay your way through nursing school and one of them is getting nursing school scholarships.

While there are many organizations including non-profits, corporations, and the government that provide nursing school scholarships to help nursing students with their tuition needs, you would have to be willing to put in your time and effort to find and secure one.

You can begin your search for nursing school scholarships at the school that you wish to attend. Most likely, they will have a financial service program for their students. The best way to find this out is to contact the school’s Financial Service Office or speak to the school’s Financial Adviser.

Find out what assistance the school offers to students in terms of financing and what the requirements for eligibility are. However, some schools will provide you detailed information about loans only after your acceptance to the school. Be sure to check with other nursing schools in your area besides your school of choice so you can compare which school can give you the best funding that will meet your needs.

In addition to local nursing schools, you can also check with non-profit organizations in your area that has scholarship programs. However, not all scholarship programs are the same. Some scholarships are available only to certain ethnic minority groups or to students of a particular field of study such as technology or research. With some patience and persistence, you will be able to find nursing school scholarships.

Another great source is hospitals in your area. The typical agreement is the hospital will pay for your tuition if you work for them for a specific period after graduation. Instead of nursing school scholarships, some hospitals have work-study programs where the hospital employs students to help them pay for their tuition.

If you are not able to locate any scholarships in your local community, you can try searching the Internet for funding from organizations that operate within your state or nationwide. The government, nursing organizations, and other agencies have websites that are good resources of information to help you find nursing school scholarships. You may also encounter websites of companies that offer to locate a scholarship for you. Beware of companies that will ask you for a fee. You do not have to pay anyone to do something that you can do on your own. Finding nursing school scholarships may be frustrating at times but if you persist, you will surely find one.



Source by Milos Pesic

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How Many Carbs To Eat

Carbohydrates are often described as the villains of the food groups. Anything from a bloated tummy to bad moods and skin have been blamed upon this type of food. Anyone wanting to lose wait knows that cutting back on 'starchy' carbohydrates can help with weightloss, but at the same time, there are so many myths and stories about what carbohydrates mean to losing weight, and the manner in which they can be cut down , That a dieter can become bewildered. However, since most dieticians and other experts recommend that carbohydrates take up 50 to 60 per cent of all calories consumed, knowledge about the right kind of carbs to eat is essential.

In the past, many dieters were advised to eat plenty of carbohydrates. They were seen as 'healthy'. Potatoes, pasta and rice were something that you should consume on a regular basis. Modern dieting suggests that carbohydrates can be divided into two different types.

Simple carbohydrates: which are digested rapidly by the body. Simple carbohydrates contain refined sugars and low vitamins and minerals (although fruits are simple, and they contain plenty of vitamins) Items such as fruit juice, yoghurt, honey and, of course, sugar, are all simple carbohydrates.

Complex carbohydrates: these take longer to be digested, and usually contain a lot of fiber, and minerals. Vegetables, bread, cereals such as whole grains and rice, and pasta.

Modern diet advice suggests that you should avoid eating large amounts of simple carbohydrates. Because these kinds of carbs are simple to use and usually taste good, these are the kind of carbs found in more fast-food products. So a bowl of sweetened cereal for breakfast, a break with sugared coffee and biscuits, and white bread sandwich with Coke, and then chips and burgers for tea means that you would be consuming far too many carbohydrates.

If you look at the list closely, you can see that there are also very few complex carbohydrates there. Most of the carbohydrates eaten are simple ones: sugar, white bread, and milk (which is simple). Then consumption of a large amount of refined sugars is associated with a greater risk of diabetes and heart problems, not to mention obesity and indigestion.

Even the complex carbs have had some mud slung at them, and a modern rumour is that no carbohydrates should be eaten after 6pm (or nightfall, or after finishing a five mile fun – there is no consistent theory). This only works with people who would otherwise eat constantly, complex carbs or not. Eating a complex carb like pasta for a late dinner should cause no problems unless it is eaten with a lot of fat.

There has also been a lot of controversy in bodybuilding circles about how much carbohydrates it is advisable to eat. In general, carbohydrates are an essential fuel for the body, and no fitness expert is going to exclude them. Most experts would recommend a daily carbs / protein / fat ratio of 50/30/20. Exactly how many calories of carbohydrates you should eat is down to your BMR. However, bodybuilding also knows that people who are endomorphic (those who run to fat more quickly than other types) should be more restrictive on their carb intake than other body types. They may wish to try a diet of 40/40/20, or even 40/45/15. In general, however, complex carbohydrates are suitable for everyone to eat, and at any time, as long as they are part of a calorie controlled diet, and backed up with regular exercise. A good diet will always cut down on simple carbohydrates, such as sugar, which are the real problem when it comes to losing weight.



Source by Gen Mason

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Commonly Known and Lesser Known Hypothyroid Symptoms

When hypothyroidism begins, several things happen, usually gradually. The first is lack of energy and ambition. You just seem to lose desire for activities you’ve enjoyed in the past. You feel unusually tired and apathetic, but can’t figure out why. You begin to crave carbs and begin to snack regularly. This is your body’s way of trying to stay awake. You’ll try not to give into it, and when you can’t fight the cravings, you set yourself up for horrible eating habits and weight gain that are difficult to reverse. You might already be taking some thyroid supplements, but they’re obviously not enough. Warning: if you are taking prescribed thyroid medication for underactive thyroid, do not add kelp as it will raise your blood pressure to frightening and dangerous levels. I learned this the hard way.

I have been a hypothyroid sufferer for 30 years. I was originally diagnosed by an old-fashioned European doctor. He was a gem. Then I had to switch to a modern, young South African doctor with a large and fragile ego, who knew nothing about thyroid glands but based everything on blood tests, which he didn’t really understand. As a person with hypothyroidism, it is hard to get any respect from the medical community. General practitioners and endocrinologists alike seem to know and care little about people suffering from hypothyroidism. Their “gold standard” is the TSH test, and most of them use the old standards of readings between .6 and 6 instead of the new readings of .3 and 3 that the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists adopted in 2003. These new readings allow more people (it’s mostly women, particularly those who are middle-aged, who suffer from hypothyroidism) to be diagnosed and treated. Too bad the professionals that we trust to look after our health don’t seem to know or care that the standards have changed. Endocrinologists, by and large, specialize in diabetes. This is where their primary interest seems to lie. The first endocrinologist I was referred to told me that she doubted I’d ever been hypothyroid and that my thyroid gland was habituated to being overstimulated. She was so wrong! Then I was referred to another endocrinologist who misdiagnosed my thyroid virus for Grave’s Disease (overactive thyroid.) The medication she prescribed raised my TSH to about 22. When I stopped taking that medication, my TSH dropped to 4.7. She told me my 4.7 TSH reading was now normal. It clearly wasn’t normal for me because I still had hypothyroid symptoms. Consider that normal or average clothing sizes could be between 6 and 14, and that you fall into this category. How many of these sizes will fit? If a size 10 fits you, why would you wear a size 14? TSH is much like that. You have to find the number that fits YOU. When you have been told for the nth time that your TSH is in the normal range, read these symptoms, most of which are commonly known, but some of which aren’t.

1. Fatigue. This is not the same as tired. This refers to falling asleep at work, during conversations, as soon as you get into a vehicle. You can’t stay awake. You need at least 10 hours sleep at night, but within a couple of hours of waking up, you begin to battle to stay awake. You nod off during conversations, which you can’t focus on anyway. You avoid socializing in the evening because you can’t stay awake.

2. Sluggishness. You move slowly physically, but even your brain is slow. Your thought processes don’t work properly.

3. Increased sensitivity to cold. Summer’s not too bad, but in the winter, there is no way to get warm or stay warm. You wear extra layers and surround yourself with space heaters. It helps, but you’re still cold.

4. Constipation. You drink lots of water and eat next to nothing, but your body processes everything slowly. Constipation follows.

5. Pale, dry skin. Skin color is pasty-looking, and skin is always dry, no matter what kind of lotion you use. My heels were so rough that every day they chewed through my socks even though I filed the roughness away daily and used foot balm.

6. A puffy face.

7. Hoarse voice. Your voice takes on a gravel-like quality at times.

8. Elevated cholesterol level.

9. Weight gain that makes no sense. You’re too tired to eat, but gain weight anyway.

10. Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness. Flexibility and mobility are gone. You move like a lead weight. If you crouch or kneel, you can hardly get up again, and it hurts to crouch or kneel anyway. Even bending down is difficult and painful, for instance, trying to reach for something you dropped under a desk.

11. Pain, stiffness or swelling in your joints. Or all of them. Any sprain you’ve had begins to hurt again. Hips, fingers, ankles ache and don’t bend properly and contribute to your moving like a lead weight.

12. Muscle weakness. You can barely walk. Walking is slow and tiring. When I brushed my teeth, I had to put my arm down and rest at least 2 to 3 times to finish brushing my teeth. You fall into chairs as opposed to sitting down, and it’s a struggle to get back into a standing position from sitting. Getting out of a car is difficult, and getting into a pickup truck a little higher off the ground is equally difficult.

13. Heavier than normal menstrual periods. By now I don’t have those any more, but when I did, I all but hemorrhaged for at least four days out of the seven or eight that my period lasted. I had to put plastic on my mattress because I would wake up during the night having bled through and past the tampon, and leave a blood trail down the hall to the bathroom. Wasn’t fun.

14. Brittle fingernails and hair. Hair is dry, brittle and unhealthy looking. Nails can’t be grown long without breaking.

15. Depression. No need to elaborate.

16. Muscle cramps. You develop cramps in muscles from head to foot. Fingers, forearms, back, abdomen, legs. These cramps happen numerous times during the day and for no logical reason. My arms, hands and fingers cramped up when I cut up meat to eat.

17. Hair loss. It’s not just the hair on your head, although that thins out a lot. It also affects pubic hair and underarm hair. That can all but vanish. Eyebrows also fall out, particularly the outside corners.

18. Sinus infections. You have recurring sinus infections even though you have never had a history of sinus problems.

19. Snoring. You begin to snore even though you’ve never had a snoring problem in the past.

20. Craving for carbohydrates. You begin to crave chips, chocolate, candy, baked goods and anything with sugar. Your body is trying to stay awake and carbohydrates provide quick energy. Doesn’t help with keeping the weight down either.

21. Irritability. Little things set you off and enrage you. Everything becomes personal and you get angry enough to want to physically harm the offender.

22. Edema. You retain water. You look puffy and blubbery, particularly in the abdominal area. Makes you short of breath when you exert yourself – even going for a walk can leave you breathless.

23. Forgetfulness. You become sharp as a bowling ball. You try to commit something to memory, but your brain is a sieve.

24. Slow heart rate. Your resting pulse can drop below 60 beats per minute.

25. Low body temperature. My temperature was consistently between 35.8 to 36.2 C, which also explains why you feel cold.

26. Painful intercourse. Having sex hurts, and add to that, you wind up with muscle cramps from the waist down.

27. Light sensitivity. Your eyes can become unusually sensitive to sunlight.

My advice? Shop around for a doctor who is willing to learn together with you about thyroid problems. General Practitioners are generally more reasonable to deal with because they have no learned bias where thyroid is concerned. My GP told me the 4.7 was too high and told me to take 50 mcg of thyroid supplement. I took 100 mcg. My TSH dropped to 1.9. She was happy with that but I wasn’t. I still didn’t feel right, and remember that only YOU know how you should feel. Remember what I said about the clothing sizes? I took another 25 mcg and the TSH dropped to .5. She used the standard of .4 to 4, so she was still happy and I was too. I finally felt normal again. Don’t let doctors bully you into believing that diet, exercise and/or antidepressants will cure what ails you when you know that isn’t the problem. Shop around for a doctor who will listen to you and work with you. Google “Mary Shomon”. She is a great source of good and useful information and advice on thyroid issues. There is hope and there is help. It’s just a matter of finding them.



Source by Christine Wiebe

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The Short History of the Chickering Brothers Piano Company

The Chickering brothers, out of Chicago, was a short lived piano making company from the early 1900’s. Even though they were in business for such a short time, they made up for it by creating one of the best pianos ever made, in my opinion, called -The Acoustigrande.

The patent reveals that they changed the angle of the spine of the piano to create a larger soundboard in width. The magic was that it didn’t look bigger.

Chickering Brothers, which should not be confused with the Chickering & Sons Piano Company from Boston. The Chickerings from both firms were related to one another, and Clifford Chickering had even worked at the Chickering and Sons factory for seven years, before starting his own firm.

He was called upon to finish a drawing that Frank Chickering (Uncle and owner of Chickering & Sons) was working on before his death. Clifford incorporated a couple of innovations into the drawing that resulted in the Acoustigrande.

Besides width, it also features a new way of tapering the rim to match the tapering of the soundboard to improve the tone.

Clifford became very skilled in piano acoustics, and he decides to branch out onto his own and he move to Chicago with his brothers.

Tragedy after next befalls Clifford, his brother Fred dies, then Wallace too, and at the same time the city of Chicago condemns the Chickering building for street widening. All while fighting with his uncles firm over use of the Chickering Name in relation to piano making.

He ends up selling his company to Ampico and also ends up returning to Chickering and Sons to become their Vice President.

Clifford was a major force in keeping the Chickering and Sons Piano Company going strong after Frank Chickering died. But due to economic conditions of the oncoming of World War 1 the firm calls it quits in 1908 selling to Ampico. Ampico took good advantage of the use and rights of the Chickering name but the pianos were a less expensive version. I have also seen a Chickering Brothers piano produced by Ampico and this too was a very inexpensive version, and not worthy of the original design

If you ever come across, or own an Original Chickering Brothers piano, please know that it was a very special design and is very much worth restoring.

It is one of the few pianos from the past that I have come across that was better than most pianos made today.



Source by Chris Chernobieff

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Culture and Website Localization

Culture and Website Localization

With the rise in ownership of computers and internet usage growing daily, the internet is fast becoming the primary port of call for information, shopping and services. In addition, those computer and internet users are increasingly from non-English speaking countries. At the end of 2002, it was estimated that 32% of internet users were non-native English speakers. This figure is constantly rising. In response, businesses have quickly become aware of the benefits of website localization.

Website localization is the process of modifying an existing website to make it accessible, usable and culturally capable to a target audience. Website localization is a multi-layered process requiring both programming expertise and linguistic / cultural knowledge. If either is missing, the chances are that a localization project will encounter problems.

In the majority of cases it is the lack of linguistic and cultural input that lets a website localization project down. In order to give an insight into the impact culture has on website localization the following examples depict areas in which a solid understanding of the target culture is necessary.

Language in Website Localization

Translating a website from English into another language is not as simple as it may appear. There are numerous factors that have to be taken into consideration when translating a websites' content. Do all the words, phrases, sayings and metaphors translate directly to the target language? Would it be wise to translate the phrase "everyman for himself" in text describing a company or product if this is going to be read by a highly collectivist culture? Does the content of your website use humor and if so will the target culture appreciate or even understand it? Native alternatives should always be taken and used in any website localization.

When translating into another language carefully consider the variants. If it is to be an Arabic website then is aimed at Tunisians or Iraqis, Egyptians or Yemenis? If you are targeting all Arabic speakers then ensure Modern Standard Arabic has been employed by your translator.

One must analyze the style of the language and the target audience. If the audience is foreign business personnel, the vocabulary, grammar and punctuation must reflect this. If the audience is informal or you are orientated then a more relaxed language must used. Just as we in the UK would identify the difference between a site using 'posh English' and 'street English', other cultures will have the same perceptions of language. Using the wrong language for the wrong reader in your localization project will lead to a misunderstanding of the site or company.

It is essential to assess what information is necessary to carry over into the new site. Do not assume that all information on the English site is automatically transferred over. One must evaluate the target culture and society. Is it a culture that relations on information rich writing to fully understand a concept or product or is a culture that concerns more on images or one that needs little text to grasp ideas and concepts? If your English site employs a lot of technical language then consider how best to transfer these concepts without the use of language.

Pictures in Website Localization

Images carry many subsection cultural messages within them. These can speak volumes about your company or product. Pictures or images may have certain negative connotations that may repel viewers. This is now an area that thankfully is receiving attention in website localization.

For example, if a travel site in a Muslim populated country used pictures of scantily clad women in bikinis, disco dancing and beer drinking, the chances are that they would not be very successful.
When including pictures of personnel it is wise to tailor these to what the target audience will look positively upon. A picture of the Director behind a desk in an office will be fine for a seniority respecting society, but for an egalitarian society it is better to show the Director mixing with staff.

It is through pictures that websites can either refer to an audience or repel them.

Symbols in Website Localization

As with pictures, symbols can cause problems in localization. Icons using fingers such as an OK sign or V-sign may mean different things to different cultures. Our Western symbols do not always mean the same abroad. An ofc cited example is the representation of the house referring to a home page, or a letterbox to mail. The use of animals in logos can cause embarrassment and further problems. For example, pigs are considered unclean in the Middle East and cows as holy in India.

Colors in Website Localization

Colors are also loaded with cultural meanings that need to be analyzed in website localization. Choosing the wrong color for your logo or background will not always have catastrophic consequences, but avoiding them is always advisable.For example, in Japan white is commonly associated with mourning. In China red is auspicious. In Africa certain colors represent different tribes.

Navigation in Website Localization

It is even the most taken for granted aspects of website layout that must be analyzed properly for a successful localization project. In the West we assume that how we present websites is how it naturally should be done. This is far from the truth.

A common problem experienced in localization is the effect on layout through translation. Foreign scripts can make your pages need more room or less room depending on the target language in the localization. Not all languages ​​read from left to right. Arabic is from right to left and both Japanese and Chinese are from top to bottom.

Access to certain pages is also a factor that can be considered as relevant. Highly hierarchical cultures may view a site positively if it is 'member only' access, whereas an egalitarian culture may find it disagreeable.

Content in Website Localization

Examining your written content in any localization process in critical to its success. This is not only important for proper transfer of aspects such as dates, currencies, and units of measurement but for the presenting the correct image.

For example, will the site focus on a product or a company? Both bring with them certain considerations depend on the target culture. If a company is marketing itself in a culture that respects seniority and hierarchy, readers will want to see information on senior members. Along with their titles and rank they will also want to evaluate them through information on their professional qualifications, experience and contacts. These areas in the UK may generally be avoided as in our culture it is bordering on self-indulgence and reflecting.

Conclusion

Culture affects everything we do, say, read, hear and think and even websites can not escape the influence of culture.

The impact of culture on website localization is huge. The few few examples are literally the tip of the iceberg. The number of variables that have to be taken into consideration requires the expertise of both a website designer along with a cross cultural communications consultant. In tandem they can identify the issues that will impact on the successful localization of a site.

At a time where the internet is entering more and more houses it is crucial that companies involved in the internationalization of their business consider website localization and take care to use effective cross cultural analysis.



Source by Neil Payne

Posted in Whitening ArticlesComments Off on Culture and Website Localization

All the information contained in this website is intended for educational purposes only. Readers are encouraged to consult other sources and talk with their healthcare provider to obtain further information.

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PiAtIDIwMDwvbGk+PGxpPjxzdHJvbmc+d29vX2ltYWdlX3NpbmdsZTwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIGZhbHNlPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29faW1hZ2Vfd2lkdGg8L3N0cm9uZz4gLSA1NDA8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb19sb2dvPC9zdHJvbmc+IC0gaHR0cDovL3RlZXRod2hpdGVuaW5ncHJvZHVjdHMuY28udWsvd3AtY29udGVudC93b29fdXBsb2Fkcy8zLXRlZXRoMi5qcGc8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb19tYW51YWw8L3N0cm9uZz4gLSBodHRwOi8vd3d3Lndvb3RoZW1lcy5jb20vc3VwcG9ydC90aGVtZS1kb2N1bWVudGF0aW9uL2dhemV0dGUtZWRpdGlvbi88L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb19uYXZfZXhjbHVkZTwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIDwvbGk+PGxpPjxzdHJvbmc+d29vX3BvcnRmb2xpb19leGNsdWRlPC9zdHJvbmc+IC0gZmFsc2U8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb19wb3J0Zm9saW9faWQ8L3N0cm9uZz4gLSBTZWxlY3QgYSBjYXRlZ29yeTo8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb19yZXNpemU8L3N0cm9uZz4gLSB0cnVlPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29fc2hvcnRuYW1lPC9zdHJvbmc+IC0gd29vPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29fc2hvd19jYXJvdXNlbDwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIGZhbHNlPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29fc2hvd192aWRlbzwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIGZhbHNlPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29fc2lkZWJhcl9yaWdodDwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIGZhbHNlPC9saT48bGk+PHN0cm9uZz53b29fc2luZ2xlX2hlaWdodDwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIDE4MDwvbGk+PGxpPjxzdHJvbmc+d29vX3NpbmdsZV93aWR0aDwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIDI1MDwvbGk+PGxpPjxzdHJvbmc+d29vX3RhYnM8L3N0cm9uZz4gLSBmYWxzZTwvbGk+PGxpPjxzdHJvbmc+d29vX3RoZW1lbmFtZTwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIEdhemV0dGU8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb191cGxvYWRzPC9zdHJvbmc+IC0gaHR0cDovL3RlZXRod2hpdGVuaW5ncHJvZHVjdHMuY28udWsvd3AtY29udGVudC93b29fdXBsb2Fkcy8zLXRlZXRoMi5qcGc8L2xpPjxsaT48c3Ryb25nPndvb192aWRlb19jYXRlZ29yeTwvc3Ryb25nPiAtIFNlbGVjdCBhIGNhdGVnb3J5OjwvbGk+PC91bD4=