Archive | July, 2017

Books of Milorad Pavic

All works of Milorad Pavic, without exception, are masterpieces. Each is unique in its kind, and leaves a trace in memory. His novels can finally satisfy your aesthetic hunger and the aftertaste is long…

He uses metaphors, that is why he can be described by metaphors. He is like Bach’s music, and like any genius is difficult to explain.

His books have a therapeutic effect, because the reality he creates is not certain. As soon as you find the path of reality, and start thinking- here is my familiar world where the laws of everyday life are in force – you immediately fall into dream. Somebody said that he writes as we dream. The world he offers is not definite and final. You need to relax and plunge into his fantastic reality. One of the heroines from Terrifying Love Stories explained our need of control using chess as example. She said something like this.

Take a black chessman and under the black paint you will see its white soul of the tree from which it is made. I want to say that it does not matter how the chessmen differ from outside, all of them, black and white, are, in fact, half white- half black and the struggle between black and white is inside each of them. This inner struggle can not be affected by chess moves that you think about. The game involves not so much the two warring armies; the field on which they move is also involved. As soon as they are on a black field, black in white and black in black, that is, evil spirits in the people and evil spirits in the evil spirits draw strength from this dark surface of this dark ground. Conversely, as soon as they appear on a white field, the support comes to the light, which is in the humans and the evil spirits playing in the party. So not only light and dark secrets have the fight inside of the chess figures, but the ground beneath their feet is also involved. How can you have your pathetic moves to influence the outcome of events? Why play a game in which you are no one and nothing?

Pavic’s books are mystical, amazing and deep. His texts are reach, many phrases may become a famous quote. In one of the stories Pavic talks about beauty, that it is so hard to create, so much effort is spent on it. In contact with the beautiful, we feel relieved, knowing that when the overall energy in the world was distributed, we were released from a known amount of labor. The efforts of others, invested in the beauty, reduced our share of fatigue, saved from a certain expenditure of energy, that is why we can enjoy it. In beauty we just rest…

While reading Milorad Pavic’s books you just rest…

Source by Laura Legend

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Silbury Hill – Chalk Mound or Pyramid Mound?

English Heritage and the archaeological establishment believe Silbury Hill to be a chalk mound. UNESCO describes it as the largest manmade mound in Europe. Driving past this ancient monument today it is quite easy to readily accept this simple explanation.

However, if we literally dig a bit deeper and look further afield, is there something more to Silbury Hill than just a chalk mound?

English Heritage goes further to confirm Silbury Hill to be a 4,500 year old ceremonial chalk mound, inspired by "ritual" and built by our Pagan / Druid pre-Christian ancientors. The date is primarily due to archaeologist Professor Richard Atkinson following the dig, sponsored by the BBC, from 1968-1970, which produced a series of archaeological programs. The TV series was designed to increase the public's awareness of archaeology by trying to reveal the inner secrets of Silbury Hill with the exciting prospect, as they progressed through the hill, they might discover a large golden statue of King Sil on horseback or some other treasure At the center of the hill.

It was no surprise that no treasure was found. However they uncovered an antler on the hill outside the entrance to the tunnel which was radiocarbon dated to 4,500 years. As no exciting artefacts' were found in the making of the TV program the antler gained in prominence. Somehow it was decided this antler was used in the construction of Silbury Hill. The huge irrational leap soon followed – Silbury Hill must also be approximately 4,500 years old – and in turn confirmed the dubious date for Stonehenge at 4,500 years old !!

Interestingly, Josh McDowell and Don Stewart at a Yale University study yielded three different ages for the same antler – 5,340 years, 9,310 years, and 10,320 years. What caused variations in the result can be explained – limestone contamination of the sample. Did English Heritage chose a date to match the existing age for Stonehenge and how could they possibly know it was used in the construction?

Professor Atkinson did not make any notes to record his dig, but he did an interview in The Listener describe Silbury Hill as' an incredibly complicated and highly colored layer cake 'and as a' wedding cake ', and the organic mound formed' A kind of intense biological club sandwich '- a clue to something more than a random pile of chalk?

So, I was resigned to the fact that in our lifetime, we would be left with the Atkinson legacy and in my view the archaeological establishment had seriously misunderstood, misrepresented and mistreated Silbury Hill.

But Atkinson left another legacy, an unstable English Heritage monument, which caused a collapse in the vertical shaft dug by Edward Drax (with Cornish miners) in 1776. This produced a gaping hole at the top of the hill in May 2000.

When the hole appeared some local researchers' aborted down the shaft and filmed some interesting discoveries – smooth walls and sharp corners indicating the presence of a chamber inside the hill and significant levels of electrostatic electricity which destroyed a mobile phone which had been accidently taken down into The shaft.

The discovery of the chamber confirmed the experience of Mrs LF Brooks from Pewsey, who spoke to the Marlborough Times in August 1962. She described how during the First World War she used to live very near the hill and was told by her parents that there were Caverns inside. When the entrance caved in, in 1915, a tiny passage led first of all downwards and then altered course and proceeded upwards. Sometimes it forked, with one way leading to a dead end and the other to a cavern 'about as big as a room'. Beyond this there was another cavern similar to the first: We took candles in with us and used to write our names on the ceiling with the candle smoke '. The whole system must have gone about three parts through the hill, 'she said. 'And it was very frightening … my brother would blow out the candle and I would be terrified.'

On the interesting question of energy levels at Silbury Hill, I met Dr Oleg Khavroshkin, Head of Nonlinear Seismology Lab, Russian Academy of Sciences, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, in Bosnia in September 2008. With sophisticated scientific equipment, he and his Team had measured electrostatic energy, magnetic fields inside and seismic waves emanating from the tip of all of the main pyramids in Egypt. He found that each pyramid had its own unique transmission frequency.

So, the collapse of the shaft spurred English Heritage to embark on the Silbury Hill Conservation and Restoration project in 2007/2008 and so began my serious research into Silbury Hill.

The latest evidence found during this project in 2007/2008 by English Heritage archaeologists including ants and insects plus core samples taken from the hill in 2002 would further confirm English Heritage's assertion that Silbury Hill was 4500 years old. However no forensic science techniques or cleanroom facilities were employed in the removal of these samples from what is a highly contaminated and polluted hill! If this was a murder scene, any evidence would be deemed inadmissible!

Similar from my investigations the Mollusc shells found deep inside the hill which were dated by the University of Mexico to over 12,000 years along with flint flakes of similar date fount in pits at the top of the first stage of the hill. Sadly this evidence must also be deemed inadmissible due to contamination and speculation. So, it would be difficult to confirm my assertion that Silbury Hill was built around 12,000 years ago.

Neverheless never soon became evident, with a number of discoveries, eg precise chalk blocks, large pieces of sarsen stone at the summit, chambers inside, flint flakes at the center and a uniform sheet of material covering the base of the construction, that Silbury Hill Is something more than a chalk mound. In fact new evidence points to the distinct possibility that Silbury Hill was originally a white pyramid and what we see today is the remains of a pyramid mound?

English Heritage removed large pieces of sarsen stone from the top of Silbury Hill in 2007.

"The discovery of large pieces of sarsen stones near the top of the final phase of the monument has also been a surprise. Spirits of dead ancestors ".

Newspaper quote from Jim Leary, Archaeologist, English Heritage The Independent Thursday 25 October 2007

English Heritage made no attempt to find out the dimension, shape and the composition of another very important piece of evidence – an unbroken and uniform membrane / sheet of dark brown butter-textured material, 5mm thick and stone-free, which appears to cover the Base of this chalk construction. Samples were sent to Arizona University and they claimed it may have the properties of a form of Mica called Illite which had been 'softened' by water seeing through the construction over the many centuries.

If we look further afield, it looks Silbury Hill is sharing scientific features and properties with lots of pyramids and pyramid mounds found on every continent on Earth. It appears from ongoing scientific research, notably with the Egyptian pyramids, that these pyramid structures were used as multifunctional energy sources converting the natural flow of ionic current into electrostatic electricity and via crystalline stone transducers such as granite and sarsen into other forms of energy including Magnetic, seismic and air purification (Bionizer) properties.

So, there are lots of convincing scientific and non-scientific clues to suggest that Silbury Hill is something more than a heap of chalk.

It is likely there may have been hundreds of similar constructions to Silbury Hill in this huge ancient Wessex complex many of which have since disappeared. Intriguingly, at 4,500 years ago, there is no evidence of the population required in this area at this time to build the ancient structures and megaliths such as Stonehenge!

Although it was poorly damaged by the Saxons who smashed the large sarsen cap to make way for a look-out post and later by a series of tunnels dug by so-called archaeologists, it seems Silbury Hill survived because of its size, position and the Gradually grassing over of the monument by nature.

The Romans, who had a settlement close by to Silbury Hill, must have produced some drawings or mosaics of what was an impressive structure at this time. Hopefully somewhere in some pretty home or museum is hidden such a record?

Or maybe we have to wait for the progress of science such as Ground Penetrating Radar Equipment linked to satellites to unforgettable untouched ancient sites to be studied carefully and open mindedly with the latest forensic science techniques?

However, all claims to the age and purpose of Silbury Hill can only be speculated at this time. Neverheless I would encourage readers to visit Silbury Hill to refer to the unique energy of this ancient site and form their own ideas and opinions – was Silbury Hill at the dawning of humanity and who were the knowledgeable builders?

Source by John Cowie

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The Benefits And Pitfalls Of Different Types Of Picture Frame Backing Boards

Find out the common backing boards used for picture framing and mounting pictures. Why you should choose one backing material over another. Understand the properties of foam boards, Corflute, MDF, Masonite or hardboard, e-board and other cardboards. What makes one more suitable than another when it comes to picture framing.

Is foam board the best backing for picture framing?

All pictures that are framed require some form of backing material to provide rigidity and protection. Even stretched canvasses that are unframed should have some backing to prevent dust building up on the back of the painting. When dust accumulates it helps trap moisture which then promotes mould growth which in turn causes damage to the artwork.

Picture framers have used many types of backing board over the years. Foam board or foamcore boards have become one of the most popular choice recently due to their light-weight construction, rigidity and easy cutting. They replaced the cardboard, Masonite or MDF (medium density fiber-board) that framers had become accustomed to using but are they better than their counterparts.

What usually concerns framers most is the chemicals that can leach from the backing into the picture. Picture framers often talk about acid-free, lignin-free or 100% cotton rag in their presentation to customers. The harmful chemicals in non acid-free materials can cause staining and acid burn to prints, posters and artworks that they come into contact with. Sometimes layers of protection like barrier papers, mounting boards or polyester sheeting is placed between the backing and the picture. It is far better to eliminate the source of the harmful chemicals than to just try to slow down their migration into the artwork.

There are acid-free and cotton surfaced foam boards which are sold as conservation foam board but these are to be used with caution when used as a direct backing for artwork. One type of foam board made by Gilman USA is 100% plastic and could be considered as a conservation board but you would still normally add another layer of 100% cotton rag board or an alpha-cellulose board as a barrier. Many galleries prefer to use corflute due to its economical cost and again being a plastic product lignins are not present. Other conservation backings include smooth surface coated corrugated boards that are made from alpha-cellulose. A new development in the production of E-flute core board, where there is a double laminated corrugated core faced with white acid-free surface papers, is eagerly waited for by the framing community.

Using plastic based boards can have other effects that need to be carefully weighed up depending on the artwork being framed. Some plastics out-gas plasticisers and other solvents which may cause irreversible organic changes in some paints, photographic emulsions and substrates.

MDF or medium density fiber-board is popular for wet gluing and mounting of prints and posters and framers often use it to wet mount cheap mass-produced canvas artworks. The benefits of the MDF are its rigidity and low-cost but it is a very hygroscopic product so it tends to absorb moisture. The increased moisture promotes mold growth and it can also cause staining to the image by drawing chemicals to the front of the artwork. It can also buckle due to the expansion of the backing but this can be rectified by counter-lamination or sealing the backing with a waterproof varnish. If the artwork or poster is only for decoration and has no long-term value, MDF is a cheap substrate to use.

Straw-board was used by picture framers right through the 19th and to the mid 20th Century. Straw-board was made from straw and had a yellow appearance. It did offer some advantages due to its alkaline nature and framers would paste prints and watercolours onto it with rabbit-skin glue or pearl glue. The pearl glue was a glue made from gelatine and applied hot from a double-boiler. The old framers sometimes added mercury salts and other fungicides into the mix in an effort to prevent mould or foxing. In some ways these methods were better than when the invention of PVA glue came around. At least an old print could be lifted by gentle soaking but with the advent of PVA the pictures became permanently bonded to the backing.

Apart from framing disposable decorative items like mass-produced posters it is wise to consider using reversible framing techniques. Most of these techniques involve hinging the picture to the backing board using Japanese paper hinges or some other acid-free archival hinging tapes. If you choose the reversible method at least the picture can be removed from the frame and has the potential for easier restoration or conservation in the future.

Source by David A Schummy

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Luxury River Cruising in Europe

Luxury European River cruises combine elegance with visits to the many small towns along the river’s edge. This gives travellers the opportunity to experience the country’s true culture firsthand.

Amadeus Waterways – Paris to Istanbul

With Amadeus Waterways your European vacation begins in Paris, the City of Lights, where passengers spend several days exploring the city, viewing the landmarks the city is known for. Stroll along Champs Elysées, the boutique-lined boulevards, or visit the Eiffel Tower. Travellers witness history up close as the ship glides along the Rhine and Main River.

Then onward to Nessebar, one of the oldest towns in Europe, before rejoining the cruise in Romania. The cruise ship sails along the Romanian/ Bulgarian border before continuing to Serbia. Towards the end of the journey guests can enjoy a full day of cruising through one of Europe’s most impressive natural wonders, the Iron Gates. The vacation concludes in historic Istanbul.

The trip includes 14 nights of deluxe accommodation in an outside stateroom. Rooms are equipped with Internet, movies and a Music Library.

Viking River cruises – 2009 Treasures of the Rhine

This 15-day voyage visits five countries along the legendary Rhine River. The journey begins in Switzerland’s Basle region, and continues through the Black Forest region of Germany and France’s Strasbourg.

On the banks of the Rhine the ship stops in the famous wine town of Rudesheim and lovely Cologne. A highlight of the journey is the guided tour of the city of Strasbourg. See the Place d’Austerlitz and European Parliament, and enjoy the city’s famed cathedral up close.

On the fifth day guests travel in a motorcoach to Heidelberg. A guided tour includes Heidelberg Castle, a red sandstone ruin overlooking the Neckar River.

Then, onward to the Netherlands to explore Amsterdam’s picturesque canals. In Amsterdam travellers are given the opportunity to enjoy a glass-topped canal cruise past merchant houses and the famed Skinny Bridge.

In Belgium travellers can discover the medieval cities of Bruges and Antwerp.

Evergreen tours – Imperial Jewels of Russia

How does an Imperial Jewels of Russia River Cruise sound? Guests enjoy a 12 night cruise onboard the Ms Surkov, the most luxurious river cruise ship in Russia. Explore some of the world’s most fascinating yet relatively undiscovered destinations.

Uncover Russian History, the imposing Red Square and the Kremlin and encounter ancient towns along the river Volga.

Commencing in St. Petersburg guests are transferred to their luxury river cruise ship. The trip begins with a tour of this stunning city including the impressive Peter and Paul Fortress. The cathedral within the fortress houses the tombs of the last Romanov family.

The tour continues on to Nevsky Prospect, where guests can view the Cathedral of Kazan, the Winter Palace and St. Isaac’s Cathedral.

A highlight of the journey is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – Kizhi Island. One of the most ancient sites in Russia, the island is an open-air architectural museum housing significant buildings.

Upon docking in Moscow, passengers visit the famed Bolshoi Theatre and Red Square

Blue Water Holidays – Andalusian Holiday

Blue Water Holidays offers a cruise through the historic Andalusia region of Spain, the home of sherry, flamenco, mountains, and the Costa del Sol. This eight day cruise sails between Seville and Cadiz along the River Guadalquivir and the Spanish coast.

This fabulous journey includes excursions to historic sites and cities. Some optional excursions are also available to towns such as Jerez, home of sherry and the flamenco, the City of Seville and the Rock of Gibraltar.

Passengers are provided with seven nights of cruise accommodation in an outside stateroom, superb dining with all meals included during, unlimited quality red and white wines from Europe’s great wine regions with every dinner, a Cocktail Reception and a Captain’s Gala Dinner.

Luftner Cruises – Music on the Danube

Most of the world’s greatest classical music has originated from a small area in central Europe. Why not take a river cruise down the Danube to explore the musical origins of the genre?

With Luftner Cruises travellers can enjoy a music cruise of the Danube River. The cruise is peppered with a variety of musical extravaganzas, from a concert at the Beethoven-house in Bonn to a tour in Strasbourg that includes a concert in the St. Thomas church.

Entertained by the singers of the London Festival Opera, the journey includes two full days in Budapest as well as a visit to the Slovakian capital of Bratislava. Whilst in the Wachau Valley, Vienna and Budapest the itinerary includes a number of guided excursions.

A river cruise such as this is tantamount to a floating hotel that travels through the very heart of Europe.

Source by Karen Cooke

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A Black Spot in Vision – What You Should Know

What are these black spots in my vision?

Black spots in the vision and line of sight are pretty common and whilst it isn’t something that you should worry about, it is certainly worth taking the time to understand what is happening and why you are experiencing the symptom.

The black spots are actually more commonly referred to as floaters and have the tendency to float around in and out of the field of vision. Sufferers can get this in one eye or both and it is especially noticeable in areas of bright sunshine or lightly colored frames. The shape and shade of the so-called floaters are subjective – they have been described as fine lines, ovals of varying sizes and even spiders. They are indeed believed to be dead cells (including red and white blood cells) and fine aggregates (lumps) of vitreous protein that are opaque enough to throw a shadow on the retina.

Behavior and What they look like

Floaters can be particularly annoying especially those that occur frequently, easily noticeable and in the line of sight. In most instances, despite being an annoyance, they are usually innocuous however you should pay particular attention to floaters that appear very abruptly and are very noticeable as these may be signs of some kind of hemorrhage into the vitreous body and retinal break. If this occurs then you should definitely book an appointment with your local GP and it’s likely that you’ll be referred straight to an eye specialist.

How to remove these floaters

There is a surgical procedure that is designed to remove the debris from the vitreous body in your eye – it’s called a “vitrectomy”. This is a fairly invasive surgery, often expensive and requires significant recovery time. It’s only really an option of the floaters are considered as a real annoyance or at the point of becoming a disability.

Natural remedies involve the supplementation of Lutein (a green pigment found in leafy green vegetables such as kale, collard greens and spinach) and Taurine which helps to regenerate tissues in the retina. The recommended doses are 6 mg and 180 mg respectively. Alternative ophthalmologists also recommend antioxidants – whilst there is firm evidence that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, selenium and zinc can help stop the formation of free radicals (which can cause oxidative damage – kind of like internal rusting) there is no direct evidence linking antioxidants to the removal of “floaters” from the vision.

Finally, eye exercises can help to remove and reduce the severity of black spots. Exercises for relaxation and to strengthen the muscles attached to the lens have been shown to improve overall eyesight performance including floater reduction.

Source by Selin Aydoshan

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Process of Food Digestion – An Interesting Story

How food gets converted into nutrients

When food is solid we chew it. We swallow it if it is liquid. Then it goes down our throats. It is interesting to learn what happens to food in entire digestive track and how our food habits influence our health, fitness and wellness.

Mouth process:

When we chew our food in mouth it gets broken into small pieces and gets mixed with saliva. Saliva is a colorless watery liquid which is always present in our mouth. It contains enzymes which digest food. These enzymes in saliva convert insoluble starches into water-soluble substances.

Actually this is the process of digestion. Enzymes convert many complex food substances into simpler substances which then can be absorbed by the body and used for its needs. These enzymes are made by different organs / glands. What finally remains after processing of the food in the digestive track is not useful for the body & is thrown out as stools or faeces.

When we smell food, our mouth waters. Saliva starts flowing down from the three pairs of salivary glands — one pair below & in front of each ear, another pair at the back of the lower jaw & the third pair underneath the tongue.

We normally produce about 8 to 10 cups of saliva in a day, in our mouth.

The enzyme in this saliva breaks down carbohydrate into simpler soluble forms of sugar.

The more we break our food by munching, the better. Saliva can then act faster on the food. Thorough chewing helps digestion process. (It is said, every mouthful of food should be chewed 32 times, once for each tooth).

Food then passes down our throat through food pipe. The small flexible lid in our food pipe, called epiglottis, closes automatically when we gulp down our food. It prevents food from going down the wrong passage which is wind pipe, lying alongside.

Stomach Process:

Stomach is an important bag shaped organ. It constantly contracts and relaxes and churns the food inside. Inside lining of stomach secretes many enzymes.

These enzymes help to breakdown proteins in order to allow body to absorb nutrients. These nutrients are then used up by body for body repair or body growth or as a fuel (energy).

Large number of glands is present inside lining of the stomach. One of the enzymes, called Renin, converts protein from milk, into soft curd. Another enzyme, called Pepsin, breaks down the long protein chains into smaller units called Peptones which are soluble in water.

Stomach also makes a large amount of hydrochloric acid. This is the same acid which we see in the chemical laboratory. This acid does many jobs as follows:

1) It weakens the proteins by loosening some of their links.

2) It dissolves minerals from various foods we eat

3) It kills bacteria which enter our stomach with the food we eat.

Food stays in the mouth for a few minutes but stays in the stomach for hours. maximum secretion of Renin, Pepsin & hydrochloric acid takes place about two hours after eating a meal. Food digestion at this time goes on very actively.

Digestion in the stomach is basically breaking down of proteins into simpler peptone unitswith the help of two enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

Outflow valve of stomach which remains closed most of the time during the day, opens up occasionally & allows very small amount of semi-digested / digested food to proceed further into small intestine. This valve opens and closes automatically. It allows partly digested semi-fluid, pasty food to pass through to small intestine.

Small intestine process:

Small intestine is a long tube which further processes the semi-digested food which comes from stomach.

Top part of small intestine is called duodenum and is about 25 cms long. There are main three juices which digest food in the small intestines. Bile juice, a bitter substance comes from liver.

Second one comes from pancreas and third one from small intestines. Juice from small intestine trickles from many places along the way. Small intestine is quite long about 5 to 6 times longer than your own height. It is properly folded in the abdomen. Most of the digestion takes place in this small intestine.

The digestion process is somewhat complicated. Pancreatic juices contain many enzymes and hormones. These help breaking down of peptones (derived from proteins) into individual amino acids.

Pancreatic juice also digests both fats and carbohydrates. Carbohydrates get converted into soluble glucose by pancreatic juice. Similarly, Lactose (present in milk) is also converted into soluble glucose.

Fats are digested to give simpler substances with the help of another kind of secretion of liver.

The liver is the chemistry laboratory of the human body.

Blood flows from heart to liver. The liver controls the level of sugar in the blood & storage of such sugars in the muscles. It takes amino acids from the blood and makes them into proteins and stores it.

It releases these proteins when required by the body. It also destroys poisonous substances and stores vitamins and minerals.

All the food which is by now broken down into simple, mostly water soluble substances is absorbed in the body through small intestine.

The inner lining of the small intestine has a number of tiny, finger like projections called villi. These are sucking organs which seize the digested materials and transfer them to the blood.Blood carries these nutrients through circulatory process to various organs of the body.

Some part of digested fats also gets carried away through another network called lymphatic system. This system also empties its contents in blood, somewhere near the neck.

Vitamins and minerals are often water soluble and are not broken down further & absorbed in the blood after being detached from the food when other nutrients get digested. Vitamin A which is fat-soluble, gets absorbed in the small intestine somewhat like fat itself.

Food which we eat finally reaches blood. It is then carried to all parts of the body, to supply their needs of energy and the body building and regulation of body functions.

Large intestine process:

The large intestine is situated next to small intestine and is tubular in shape. Its inside is smooth without any projections. It is placed in abdomen in the shape of English letter U upside down.

As the digested food passes along the intestine, water is absorbed from through the walls and into the blood. The food becomes less liquid and becomes hard. Breaking down of the digested food gives rise to some substances which carry bad smell. The undigested food is then thrown out of the body in the form of stools through the opening called Anus.

How the digested food is made useful?

Carbohydrates (starches & sugars) are broken down first in mouth and then in the small intestine into simple sugars chiefly glucose.

Glucose is absorbed by the villi of the small intestine directly into the blood stream. It travels all over your body and is used by muscles as a source of energy for their working.

A small part of glucose is converted into glycogen which is the form in which glucose is stored both in muscles (about two thirds) and in the liver (about one third).

Some glucose is always circulating in the blood and the level is steady. When the sugar level goes up it is a sign of a fault — such as the disease diabetes.

Fats are broken by way of intermediate simpler forms eventually into glycerol & fatty acids. Part of these fatty acids directly go into the blood and then to the liver as does glycerol. These fatty acids are either used for energy or sent via blood to other parts of body. They then may be used for energy or built back into fats, which are dispatched through the blood for storage as fatty tissues.

Any excess food which we eat above our requirements is converted into and stored away mostly in the form of fat. When we get insufficient food (e.g. during fasting) fat deposits are first used up.

Proteins reach blood stream as amino acids which are their building blocks. At various places in the body, these amino acids are picked up by the body organs and built into variety of compounds.

Tissue proteins, enzymes, hormones and so many other chemical compounds are protein in nature. Liver itself makes and stores body proteins.

Vitamins and minerals are also stored in the liver. Whenever body needs them, these are released to the body parts and organs.


There are thousands of interconnected processes going on in our body, all the time. Food is digested and then absorbed in the small intestine. All the absorbed vital nutrients are then circulated via blood to different body parts / organs. And the process goes on.

Source by Pradeep Mahajan

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Arthritis and Nutrition

Arthritis affects almost one in every five people in the United States. Arthritis is the broad term for hundreds of disorders that involve the joints. The two main types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. They each damage the joints in different ways. The most common signs and symptoms of arthritis could be pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, and decreases range of motion depending on the type you have. Most people are not aware that choosing healthy foods can tremendously improve the way they feel.

Many people enjoy food so much that they may not realize that what they are putting into their systems can cause inflammation in their bodies. Arthritis is a disease of inflammation so those with arthritis should focus on finding the anti-inflammatory foods they like. Daily exercise and losing weight (if overweight) will help alleviate the stress on the joints. It will also help in lowering the level of inflammation in the body. Nutrition is key! It is always a good idea to discuss a new diet with a professional.

You can fight arthritis with foods that help reduce some aspect of inflammation; Omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, rainbow trout, Pacific oysters, flaxseed and walnuts), Extra-virgin olive oil (use when cooking), Antioxidants (sweet peppers, oranges, grapefruit, strawberries, pineapple, lemons, broccoli, cantaloupe, mangos, tuna, crab, tilapia, whole-wheat pasta, lean beef, cod, shrimp, turkey, sweet potato, carrots, pumpkin, apricots, spinach, onions, cherry tomatoes, blueberries, elderberries and apples), and Spices (ginger and turmeric) are among some that are known to help.

Inflammation irritates arthritic joints, causing the tissues to swell and become inflamed. Eating anti-inflammatory foods may reduce swelling, but it’s also important to know about the foods that can trigger painful inflammation. Stay away from; fried foods, sodas, refined carbs, lard, processed meats, refined oils, salts, sugars, dairy products, simple carbs, processed foods, saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol, tobacco, white rice, white flour, white bread, pasta, pastries etc.

Maintaining a healthy diet can be done by eliminating or reducing inflammatory foods. Start by reading the ingredient labels and look for indicated levels of saturated and trans fats. Compare different product brands to see which ones have lower levels of unhealthy fats and sugars. Switch to natural cooking oils like olive or avocado oil. Avoid deep fried foods or ones that have been cooked at high temperatures. Choose more low fat and trans fat-free options when buying packaged foods. Add more omega-3 fatty acids and reduce omega-6 fatty acids. Finally eat as close to natural as possible by consuming less prepackaged and processed foods.

If you have arthritis, it is important to find the foods that make you feel better. These food suggestions are guideline and not a one size fits all. Foods that cause joint pain for one person may not cause the same joint pain for the next person. Paying attention to what you are consuming can change the way you feel drastically. Stay away from the foods that cause inflammation for you and find the anti-inflammatory foods that you like! And don’t forget to exercise!

This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read herein.

Source by Addison Jones

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How to Understand Ferret Colors and Patterns

All ferrets derive from one of eight various colors and five assorted patterns. Through the years the more those breeders have cross bred the ferrets the more the ferret colors and patterns have changed. So to understand exactly, color refers to the overall shade or color of the ferret while the pattern is determined by his markings.

Your ferret will come from one of the following color groups:

· Sable

· Black sable

· Albino

· Champagne

· Chocolate

· Cinnamon

· Silver

· Dark eyes white

Keep in mind that each ferret can be a lighter or darker shade but it is still in the same color group. Another interesting fact is that Dark eyed while ferrets are not Albino. Albinos will always have red or pink eyes. The Dark eyed ferrets will be white or cream colored but will have the very darkened eyes.

The sable ferret is likely the most widely recognized ferret and can include colors that range from a deep brown color to black. These are not the chocolate ferrets though since they resemble the color of milk chocolate. Silver ferrets can be silver or range from colors that are gray. The cinnamon colored ferret can range from many colors that could be reddish to blonde with a hint of red.

The patterns of ferrets are distinctly named including:

· Roan

· Siamese

· Solid

· Panda

· Blaze

· Point

· Mitts

Roans are usually an equal mix of white and guard hairs but it is the guard hairs that ascertain the distinction of roan. Both the Siamese and the Point ferrets will have a dark shade coloring their tails or legs. Solid ferrets will obviously be one solid color but it is acceptable to classify them as solids even if they have diverse colors on their faces.

Mitts look like they are wearing white mittens, hence the name. Blaze ferrets have an actual streak of an entirely different color running from their head to the shoulders. Panda ferrets are true to the name and have the markings of a panda around their eyes that are white in color.

It is likely that your ferret will not be the same color when he is very young as when he gets older as most ferrets do change colors. Many ferret owners have purchased a ferret based on color only to discover that in a year the color has changed entirely. Sometimes ferrets will change colors seasonally.

The one thing that usually never changes is the personality of the ferret so it is a good idea to get to know your ferret before making a decision on which one will be your pet. Basing this choice on color really is not such a good idea since as you can see the color of ferrets is not something that is set in stone.

Mainly, the patterns and colors of a ferret will only matter if you plan to breed your ferret. Each breeder will have a preference to which markings and colors they are interested in.

Source by Chaim Packer

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Analysis of Betty Friedan’s The Problem That Has No Name

In an excerpt from her book, “The Feminine Mystique”, Betty Friedan defines women’s unhappiness during the Fifties as ”the problem that has no name.” She identifies “the problem that has no name” as upper-middle classed suburban women experiencing dissatisfaction with their lives and an inarticulated longing for something else beside their housewifely duties. She pins the blame on a media perpetuated idealized image of femininity, a social construction that tells women that their role in life is catch a man, keep a man, have children and put the needs of one’s husband and children first.

According to Friedan, women have been encouraged to confine themselves to a very narrow definition of “true” womanhood, forsaking education and career aspirations in the process by experts who wrote books, columns and books that told women during that era that their greatest role on the planet was to be wives and mothers. The role of a “real” woman was to have no interest in politics, higher education and careers and women were taught by these experts to pity women who had the nerve to want a life beyond the cult of true womanhood.

If women expressed dissatisfaction with their charmed lives, the experts blamed their feelings on the higher education they received before becoming a housewife. During the fifties, little girls as young as ten years were being marketed by underwear advertisers selling brassieres with false bottoms to aide them in catching boyfriends and American girls began getting married in high school. America’s birthrate during this time skyrocketed and college educated women made careers out of having children. The image of the beautiful, bountiful Suburban housewife was accepted as the norm and women drove themselves crazy, sometimes literally to achieve this goal.

Friedan ultimately concluded that “the problem that has no name” is not a loss of femininity, too much education, or the demands of domesticity but a stirring of rebellion of millions of women who were fed up with pretending that they were happy with their lives and that solving this problem would be the key to the future of American culture.

Source by Kathy Henry

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