Archive | June, 2017

Translation: Is It a Science or an Art?

Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a source text and the subsequent creation of an equivalent text in other words, transmission of information into another language.

This definition seems to explain accurately the essence of the so-called science. If you’re reading this, then probably you most likely either a written or oral translator and you have to understand this classic tackle that continually faces almost every translator: you understand the context of a source text, but you are not able to find the equivalent in your own language; you are also not allowed to change the context of a text and your main aim is to find the solution and find appropriate words in your native language.

From this point of view, everything depends on the text that is in front of you. Legal document or a patent must be translated with precision surgery, while at the same time sales presentations, marketing documents, as well as artworks must sound naturally on a target language.

To give a translation natural-sounding requires a certain linguistic skills, understanding of language and its processes. Translation can hardly be called a science, but it is rather the inner music of language, a stream of phrases that are connected into the text, with a precise set of terminology.

Someone still believes that translation must be considered as an exact science. They say that the main thing is professional skills and knowledge, but not a subtle perception or sense of language. The science alleges it is a properly prepared and trained mind that can easily transform one language to another – like a computer.

Translators can be divided into two groups: those who always use logic, concentrating on the original text, and those who do it with a sense, focusing on a language. It also applies to consecutive and simultaneous interpreters. There are technical translators who possess the ability to translate a technical text and make it sounds quite naturally and translators who literary translate the text that adhere to the original context and create a huge number of pages, hardly amenable to reading and understanding (the last statement applies in particular to translation of literary texts in Chinese or Japanese languages in Europe).

The process of translation and interpretation reflects how it is complex to transmit communication messages. And especially if you are doing interpretation, being a person who wants to facilitate communication and understanding between the two other people, you might want to translate something that was not said: the “hidden” meaning of words or something that someone did not say out loud, for example, because of uncertainty. Without exaggeration I can say that you, as an interpreter, can influence the fate of nations. A good example of what you’ll find in a novel by Javier Marias “White Heart» (A Heart So White). Read it if you are interested in the literature on translation activities.



Source by Sergii Litvinov

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The P-O-S-D-C Of Management – A Student Aid

Pupils need every available edge when it comes to studies, whether they know it or not. They should take advantage of every bit of information available, i.e., research articles, white papers, periodicals, magazines, and yes…blogs.

This wee bit of information should prove useful to the aspiring business management, marketing, accounting, secretarial sciences, business law, and/or programming student(s). These extra tools will aid the student in his/her preparation for successful management endeavors. Management students will first need to know the P.O.S.D.C.’s of management.

PLANNING: the process of setting objectives and determining what needs to be done to successfully accomplish the assignment-mission of an organization.

ORGANIZING: the process of task assignment, the coordination of resources, team structuring, and work activities for the organization.

STAFFING: the process of building the team by attempting to attract and retain qualified people to the organization.

DIRECTING: the process that provides leadership, arranges motivational opportunities, and builds a good working environment.

CONTROLLING: the process of establishing enterprise-wide standards, analyzing results, measuring actual performance and monitoring to see whether standards have been met. Controlling also includes making the right decisions and corrective actions, if needed.

Students should also become familiar with the process of management and what is required to become a manager. The best managers are well informed and are acutely aware of team needs. The needs of the team are met with the managerial support reflecting alternatives and suggestions for a team coordinated solution.

The process of management involves planning, organization, leading, and controlling the use of resources to accomplish target performance goals. “All managers, regardless of title, level, type, and organizational setting(s), are responsible for the four functions. However, they are not accomplished linear, step-by-step fashion.” John R. Schermerhorn Jr., goes on to say…”The reality is that these functions are continually engaged as a manager moves from task to task and opportunity to opportunity in his or her work.”

While agreeing with Mr. Schermerhorn as well as several other experienced, teachers, and gurus of this profession, the ultimate goal of a manager is to help the company/organization achieve its highest performance with the utilization of resources, human and material.

Henry Mintzberg wrote, “Although the management process may seem straightforward, things are more complicated than they appear at first glance.” Ever-present e-mail and instant messages are added to his list of executive/managerial operations.

Remember my message “IT and BI”, the non-hyperbole of the marriage between Business Intelligence and Information Technology? “BI and IT virtually, methodically, and basically go arm-in-arm.” Just look around you. Technology and Management is everywhere. But in order to ascend to the highest level(s) in management, one must begin with the P.O.S.D.C. of management.

Happy Studies.

Til next time…



Source by Gregory V. Boulware

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The Key To Dissolving Prostate Stones

It is common for men to have small calcifications in their prostate. Prostate stones are calcified protein particles that are called corpora amylacea.

As men age, it is common for them to experience a swelling of the prostate (BPH) or benign prostatic hyperplasia. This inflammation and swelling can cause secretions from the prostate to actually get stuck in the gland. Prostate stones occur when these secretions have sat in the prostate for just a short period of time. The stagnant secretions form like a pearl and become calcified like stone.

If you are having trouble starting a stream of urine, going in waves, having a weaker flow or trickling, these are all common sign of prostate stones. Most traditional allopathic medical doctors will not recognize this condition, so it is important to study the biological mechanics of your prostate and be well informed. Remember that blockages cause problems so the key to balanced health is to eliminate, assimilate and circulate. It is important to treat calcifications in a timely manner since it is easy for bacteria to grow in the prostate gland calcification and prostate stones. Without getting rid of this debris and congestion, prostatitis can never really be cured.

Magnesium is used to prevent and break up kidney stones. Magnesium also dissolves prostate stones and at times can be released in the urine. Prostatic calculi or stones are believed to be responsible for a certain percentage of chronic prostatitis cases. Treating an infection from the prostate becomes difficult once the stones take form within the gland and become stubbornly dug in. It is estimated that about 75% of middle aged men have this problem. That’s most of middle age men! Molecular analysis has shown that prostate stones contain ingredients that are generally found in urine and not prostatic secretions. This fact indicates a reflux of urine into the prostatic ducts.

There is a solution for calcification of the prostate! Magnesium Di-Potassium EDTA helps dissolve calcifications and directs the calcium back into bones and teeth where it is needed and belongs. Using Magnesium Di-Potassium EDTA in suppository form is both safe and effective, representing a valid alternative to intravenous chelation with Di-sodium EDTA. In addition, Magnesium Di-Potassium EDTA also has shown to have certain beneficial effects not associated with the traditional Di-sodium form of EDTA. EDTA also increases nitric oxide in the blood. Nitric oxide is a crucial element for erectile potency.

The most effective form of this supplement is in a suppository form. Placing the suppository right behind your prostate by-passes the digestive system, allowing the rich and nourishing ingredients to be absorbed directly into your prostate gland and maximizing full potency of the ingredients. I have studied in herbal therapy the importance of using an “herbal rectal bolis” in order to cure prostate problems. This method does just that!

CLICK HERE to learn more about dissolving your prostate stones for good!



Source by Trish Pappano

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All the information contained in this website is intended for educational purposes only. Readers are encouraged to consult other sources and talk with their healthcare provider to obtain further information.

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